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This story first appeared on Ecosystem Marketplace, and was co-written with Alice Kenny.
In this moonscape called Haiti, there is no place to hide from the 145-mile-per-hour winds and torrential rains measured in feet rather than inches that Hurricane Matthew brings as it grinds across the country, triggering mudslides, cutting through gullies, destroying anemic vegetation and possibly washing deadly strains of cholera and sewage into rivers where people wash and drink. This once lush Caribbean island nation has been virtually cut clean of its former tree cover by an impoverished people desperate for fuel. Ninety-eight percent of the trees that used to sponge up flood waters, provide refuge for forest animals and buffer mudslides have been cut down. Saplings planted by an endless litany of well-intentioned charitable organizations are sawed down before they can grow by Haitians needing wood to burn.
Haiti offers a heartbreaking illustration of the devastating consequences of narrowly valuing forests for only the commodities they provide – food and fuel – while ignoring the wealth of environmental services and protection forests offer. Now as markets for ecosystem services – carbon, wetlands, and biodiversity – expand their reach, investors are exploring their potential to rescue a tree-starved Haiti.
There are, indeed, some promising projects. Clothing company Timberland, for example, is working with the Smallholder Farmers Alliance (SFA) to promote agroforestry, which essentially blends trees with cash crops to revive soils. The Alliance for Clean Cookstoves is beginning to explore options for using carbon finance to fund the distribution of clean-burning cookstoves, as is CQuestCapital.
Of these three efforts, SFA says its project has planted nearly six million trees since 2010, and in a way that embeds trees into the economy by strategically integrating them into land management. The project now involves 3,200 farmers, nearly half of whom are women, and yields are up nearly 40 percent.
But hurdles run high as corruption and poverty contribute to a spiral of despair. Haitians, hungry and cold, are direct in their assessment. Forget about trees’ long-term potential, they tell aid workers. To eat tonight we need to burn wood today.
Even the Birds Have Fled
Millions of trees, enough to reforest this island nation, have been planted over recent decades by international agencies and local charitable organizations, aide groups agree. Most of them, however, fail to reach maturity, says Michael Jenkins, founding president of Forest Trends and publisher of Ecosystem Marketplace.
Jenkins first went to Haiti in 1983 as a Peace Corps volunteer where he worked with the USDA agro forestry program. He’s returned several times to brainstorm the possibilities of creating a climate fund that would bring in private-sector investments to serve multiple goals such as protecting mangroves, planting trees and improving agricultural practices.
Had the trees Jenkins and so many others helped plant been allowed to thrive, they could have helped rehabilitate this barren land, he says. Look, for example, at the Dominican Republic, which shares the island Hispaniola with Haiti. While the same storms and hurricanes target both nations, the Dominican Republic, with 60 percent of its forest cover remaining, still offers fertile farmland.
Tree roots grip nutrient-rich topsoil, holding it in place during heavy rains and prevent mudslides and flooding, Ethan Budiansky, who oversaw the nonprofit Trees for the Future’s tree planting endeavor in Haiti and now runs the Cocoa Livelihoods Program’s climate-smart cocoa program, said in a 2010 interview with Ecosystem Marketplace.
"There is a global focus on planting trees to reduce carbon in the atmosphere, but there is so much more to trees that that," he says. "They play a significant role in the health of the environment and, therefore, the health of the people."
Tree roots trap pollutants before they flow into waterways. They recycle moisture back into the atmosphere. And they provide refuge for a host of life, from birds to honey bees.
But in Haiti, even the birds have fled; without trees to nest in, pigeons are among the few that remain. Subsistence farmers that, according to government data, make up nearly 75 percent of the population watch helplessly as terraced land they tilled on this mountainous terrain washes away. Nearly 15,000 acres of Haiti’s topsoil washes away each year, Budiansky said, five times the size of the principality of Monaco. Farmers whose earnings average less than two dollars a day are often left with little more than dust and rocks to till.
"Desertification," a word that basically means turning lush land into desert, has taken hold of much of Haiti’s interior, said Norman Christensen, the founding dean of the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Studies at Duke University and a frequent volunteer in Haiti, in a 2010 interview with Ecosystem Marketplace. Trees that used to recycle moisture and replenish the atmosphere are no longer there to promote gentle rains that nourish vegetation. This leaves dry, dusty land at the mercy of hurricanes whose intensity and frequency has increased, scientists say, due to climate change.
While the word, desertification, is relatively new, the phenomenon is not. It is basically what happened in the United States in the 1930s when over farming turned the Great Plains into the Dust Bowl.
In response, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt sparked the first large-scale environmental movement to save this land.
"The nation that destroys its soil," he said, "destroys itself."
Changing the Odds
Fighting hurricanes and storms without forest cover is like wearing boxer shorts while fighting an armor-clad knight. There is no contest.
To change these odds, nonprofit organizations such as Trees for the Future have teamed up with local groups to find solutions that serve Haitians immediate and long-term needs. Since 2012, they have planted more than a million trees such as the fast-growing leucaena that, similar to many shrubs, grow even bigger after getting pruned back for firewood and other uses. And they are nourishing what Budiansky dubs a "miracle tree," the moringa, whose leaves hold massive amounts of Vitamin C, calcium and protein, can be cooked like spinach and can be harvested six months after the trees are planted.
But tree planting, good will and charitable intentions have not been enough to save Haiti. Somehow, economic incentives must be found.
Forest Cover and Business Survival
Many businesses in Haiti already have clear incentives pushing them to find ways to promote forest cover. Digicel, for example, the leading mobile phone operator in Haiti, experiences firsthand how Haiti’s lack of forest cover hurts its bottom line. Roads to their cell towers wash away every year; they must be repaired for business to proceed. Digicel responded by sponsoring its own foundation that promotes tree cover and provides educational and social services to the Haitian people. Similarly, hydroelectric companies are investing in forest cover in the highlands to promote clean water in the lowlands.
Teaming up With Ecosystem Markets
Funds from carbon market investors could be used to support the use by Haitians of kiln and cook stoves that emit less carbon into the air, suggested Jenkins. Businesses could invest in forests upstream to protect their downstream investments. Developers might be persuaded to protect endangered biodiversity. Nongovernmental organizations could provide oversight to avoid local corruption.
Ecosystem markets, however, would be limited by the absence of a functional economy in Haiti, says Christensen. Environmental, social and political risks pose additional challenges to environmental markets, adds Budiansky, pointing out that Trees for the Future supports carbon and other environmental markets elsewhere.
"When you’re planting trees in the carbon market, you’re guaranteeing to investors that those trees will remain in the ground for 10-to-20 years," Budiansky said. "We cannot make that guarantee."
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